Characteristics of Cultivated Plum Varieties and Cultivation Techniques

Qing Li is extremely prosperous, with a more upright tree and strong branches. The results are mainly in branches, short fruit branches and fruit-like fruit branches. The results are piled up. They mature in Chongqing in the middle and early August. They are planted and fruited in the second year after planting. They can be hung up to 1.5 kg, yield up to 165 kg, and have a 3-year old tree. The average yield is 7.8 kilograms, and the per mu output is 850 kilograms. After entering the prolific period, the per mu output can reach 2600 kilograms. The current average price in the market is 12 yuan per kilogram, and the per mu output value is up to 30,000 yuan. Whether in the mountains or plains, Li Qing has shown good ecological adaptability and is an excellent late-ripening plum variety.

First, build a park

Crisp plum is not strict with the soil, but its shallow roots and weak water resistance, so it is still better to choose a soil with a deep, water-free soil. For soil with shallow soil, it is best to improve the soil or plant a large hole. Soil acidity and alkalinity are most suitable for slightly acidic soils with a pH of 6 to 6.5. Slightly alkaline or neutral soils are also acceptable. Qingcai Li Zaofeng has strong yields. In order to increase the yield in the early period, many plants are planted in close quarters. It is appropriate to plant 222 (31 meters) and 333 (21 meters) per mu. During the planting period, it is better to plant in autumn in the south from October to December, and it can be planted from September to the beginning of March of the following year. After planting, the rooting water is poured and the water is covered with rice straw or film to provide heat preservation and water retention.

Second, pruning

1 shaping. V-shape: This is a new tree shape of Li, suitable for planting trees with a 31-meter and 21-meter spacing. It is widely used in peaches. The shaping method is: leaving 40 to 60 centimeters in height and short cut and dry in the year of planting, selecting two new shoots extending perpendicularly between rows and rows as permanent main sticks, and inserting two bamboo sticks obliquely (V-shaped) Fix it. The angle between the new shoot and the ground is 45°C, and the angle between the two main branches is 90°. The remaining shoots were picked at 20-30 cm long. Let it form flower buds as soon as possible so that it can bear fruit the following year. In the second year, the resulting branches were cultured on the two main branches.

2 Trim. Qingjian Li mainly produces short and middle fruit branches and short fruit-like branches. Therefore, it is advisable to use long-distanced branches on pruning to promote the formation of short branches. The crisp and short fruiting branches of Li are easy to produce, and there are many flower buds. They are weak for several years and need to be updated with proper short cuts to maintain a reasonable proportion of long and short branches. The crisp buds of Qing Li have a long life and the old branches are easy to update. The leggy branches of the old failing tree are allowed to pull branches, or short cuts, trigger branches and result branches to fill the canopy. In addition, flower buds are often formed at the top and upper parts of the middle and long fruiting branches in the sapling stage, so they should not be cut short when trimmed. It should be based on sparse shearing and pulling branches.

Third, soil fertilizer management

1 Fertilization. Saplings (close planting gardens for 1 to 2 years) to promote growth, early results, more frequent fertilization. To master the principle of thin application, apply fertilizer once a month from July to July. The main available nitrogen fertilizer, combined with organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer application. From September to October, the base fertilizer was applied once, and the base fertilizer was mainly organic fertilizer and applied with phosphate fertilizer.

In adult trees (after three years of dense planting gardens) fertilization must be combined with N, P and K, and the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application is 10:8:10. The high yield garden (above 4,000 kg per mu) should be applied with 30 kg of pure nitrogen, 20 kg of phosphorus pentoxide and 30 kg of pure potassium per mu. The annual orchard should be fertilized 3 times. That is, a basal fertilizer and two topdressing fertilizers are suitable for application before deciduous leaves from September to October, accounting for 60% of the annual total. Organic fertilizers are mainly used, and 5,000 to 5,000 kg of livestock manure water is used for Mushi and 60 kg of superphosphate are used. Topdressing in two separate applications, the first application before germination (at the end of February), which accounts for about 15% of the entire year, 1500 kg of animal manure water in Mushi, 20 kg of urea, 10 kg of potassium sulfate, and the second top dressing in June. The application of young fruit in the middle of the expansion, accounting for about 25% of the whole year, 2000 kg of pig manure water, 30 kg of urea, 20 kg of superphosphate, 20 kg of potassium sulfate.

2 Soil management. The root system of Ligand is shallow and has high requirements for soil nutrients. After planting the orchard without soil improvement, it is necessary to deepen and deepen the soil every year to deepen the root system distribution. At the same time reasonable irrigation, cover, cultivator to ensure root growth. From March to September, it is used as straw covering the tree tray to prevent soil from drying out. At the same time pay attention to the rainy season drainage, autumn expansion hole pressure green. After pruning in winter, the whole park will plow once.

Fourth, flower and fruit management

1 Baohuabaoguo technology. For a variety of mixed plants, a late-maturing variety, such as Crimson Plum, should be mixed and planted. The ripening period is generally consistent with that of Qing Li, and the countryside is good. 2 Flowering bee. 3 Spraying hormones and trace elements: First, spraying 30-50 mg/kg gibberellic acid + 0.3% borax + 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate + 0.2% urea at full flowering stage can significantly increase the fruit setting rate. The second is the long-term shoots of new shoots (early April and early May) spraying 15% paclobutrazol 300 to 500 times or 200 times PBO, which can significantly control the growth of new shoots and increase the fruit setting rate. Third, at the end of June, spraying 15% paclobutrazol 300-fold or 150-fold at the beginning of July can control the shoot shooter and form a large number of flower buds, which can increase the following year's yield and is particularly effective for saplings.

2 Techniques for improving fruit quality. Increase organic fertilizer and increase potassium fertilizer during fruit enlargement. Thinning fruit: After the first physiological fruit drop, it is advisable to control the yield per mu in 2000-3000 kg. Root topdressing phosphorus and potassium. Can be combined with spray pesticides, can be added 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.3% urea and trace element fertilizer.

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