Key technologies for rice cultivation and cultivation

First, species selection must use high-quality varieties with high quality, high yield, pest resistance, resistance to stress, and security maturity that have been successfully passed by national or local authorities and successfully demonstrated in the local area. Comprehensive resistance must be better, and it is beneficial to not use or reduce the amount of pesticides used, and to increase the safety and quality of rice. Seed quality has the characteristics of this species, namely, high purity, high germination rate and germination potential, clean, full and full, five kinds of diseases, dry and resistant storage.
Second, seed processing
1. Outdoor drying: Before soaking, rice seeds are tiled 8 to 10 centimeters thick in the open air and dried for 2 to 3 days.
2. Salt water selection: The density of brine is 1.08 ~ 1.13 g/m3. It is prepared as a proportion of 50 kg of water plus 10 to 12 kg of crude salt. When selecting seeds, the rice seeds are first poured into salt water and stirred while stirring. Each time the rice seedlings do not exceed half the volume of salt water. After the seeds sink, remove the above scorpions, and then remove the sinking, full seeds. Wash the washed seeds in clean water twice to prevent salt from entering the seeds and affecting germination.
3. Soaking disinfection: soaking seeds must be higher than the water surface 15 cm, soaking time with the water temperature may be, the general water temperature 15 °C soaking for 5 to 6 days, water temperature 10 °C soaking 7 to 8 days. For the disinfectants such as Miaoqingqing and 901, depending on the type of disinfectant, some may be soaked in the end, and some need to be cleaned, and the operation shall be performed in accordance with the instructions.
4. Seed germination: The soaked seeds are removed for germination. The key technology for rice germination is to control the temperature and moisture. The germination method depends on the type of disinfectant. The disinfectant that needs to be cleaned can be cleaned and put into warm water of 40-50°C to warm it up and remove it immediately after warming; the disinfectant without cleaning can directly remove the seed. Put germination at the insulation place, the seed thickness does not exceed 50 cm, put a thermometer in the middle of the seed, control the temperature at 28 ~ 30 °C, two days will be able to germinate. When germinating, it must be turned 3 to 4 times a day to make the temperature inside and outside the seed uniform and prevent high-temperature seeding.
Third, Putian choice Putian should choose flat, leeward sunny, sunny, loose soil, moderate fertility, no disease source, water-friendly garden or garden fields, seedbeds should be fixed, in order to facilitate continuous cultivation and protection.
Fourth, Putian fertilization training method is to use a sufficient amount of decomposed green manure, human waste, pig manure, cake fertilizer and other organic fertilizers, can be used as bottom-fertilizer. It can be selected from the land and seasons to suit the specific conditions in the local area. Hetao soil, drainage dry soil, forest land or upland soil can be used for composting, and the time for extracting soil is best to be in the first year of spring and summer. The essence of fertilization in bed soil is to increase the content of humus in the bed, ie bed soil should be cultivated, organic fertilizer should be rotten, and organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer should be combined. The amount of soil per 100 square meters is 2500 kg for dry seedlings and isolation seedlings, 400 kg for 100 seedlings, and 250 kg for 100 seedlings per 100 seedlings. To adjust the structure of nutritious soil before nursery, the method is to add 25-30% of the compost compost and mix evenly, and then add the nutrient soil conditioner, such as: rice dry nursery nutrient soil parent agent, rice dry nursery seedling agent, bed Land fine and so on. If the formulated nutrient soil is highly alkaline, it is also necessary to adjust the acidity to about pH 4.5-5.5. Finally, the nutritious soil is evenly mixed and sieved for storage.
V. Timely sowing According to the temperature and the maturity of the species to determine the appropriate sowing time, Jilin Province, the middle and eastern plains can be sown in the middle of April, Mid-levels and mountain areas can be sown in late April.
1. Seedlings for isolation layer: On the well-formed bed, a perforated plastic film (44 cm caliber punching size, 4 mm hole diameter) or a woven bag is laid on the flat bed, and the four sides of the bed are surrounded by a 3 cm high frame. Pack 2.5 cm thick nutritious soil and scrape flat. The amount of water is about 5 kg per square meter. After soaking, sow the seeds in time. 200-250 grams of seed germination per square meter, the first sowing the amount of 2 / 3, and then use the remaining 1/3 reseeding evenly, after sowing gently suppress with a wooden board, so that seeds and bed soil paste. Cover 1 centimeter of nutritious soil, which is based on non-exposed seeds. Cover as little soil as possible. The seedling bed weeding sealant, covered with a layer of plastic film.
2. Standardized dry seedlings: Putian to carry out the fall or spring turn, after the plough hoe broken flat, plough depth of 14 to 15 cm, bed soil depth to reach 12 to 13 cm. Pack 2.5 cm thick nutritious soil and scrape flat. Other operations are the same as isolation seedlings.
3. Seedlings for raising seedlings: loading soil, scraping the prepared nutritious soil, and pressing it to 2/3 with pressure plate. The first irrigated with water, then sowing, sowing with a matching seeder to ensure that each pod 2 to 3 seeds primed species. The cover soil is based on non-exposed seeds and is as thin and uniform as possible. Place the plate, the day before placing the plate, the seedbed will be irrigated, and when the plate is placed, the plate will be pressed into bed soil 0.5 to 1.0 cm, and no gap will be left between the plate and the plate. After placing the disc with a small watering can watering. The seedling bed weeding sealant, covered with a layer of plastic film.
4. Plate seedlings: Each plate is loaded with 3 kg of nutrient soil, irrigated with water, and then sown. The seeding rate per plate is 200-250 g of pregermination seeds, and the cover soil is subject to non-exposed seeds, as thin and uniform as possible. Place the plate, the seedbed is irrigated the day before placing the plate, leaving no gap between the plate and the plate. The seedling bed weeding sealant, covered with a layer of plastic film.
Sixth, Putian management
1. Sowing till the seedling stage: The temperature of the greenhouse is controlled within 30°C, and the plastic film is peeled off in time after emergence. Before emergence, if the seedbed is short of water, it should be poured once in a timely manner.
2. Emergence to 1 leaf 1 heart period: After the emergence of the greenhouse temperature control at 25 ~ 28 °C, sunny and proper ventilation to practice seedlings, bed soil moisture should not be too much, keep moist, water can be poured in two days.
3.1.5 Leaf to 3 leaf stage: The temperature in the shed is controlled at 22°C, the bed surface should be slightly dry, ventilation should be timely in high temperature weather, and the seedlings must be controlled. Saline-alkali soil nursery should grasp the pH change of the bed soil in time. When the PH value rises, it should be poured with acidified water. Generally, 50 kg of water is added with 50 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid.
4.3 Leaf to transplanting period: At this time, the outside temperature is high, the wind is large, and the evaporation is large. It is necessary to pour once a day. When the temperature exceeds 20°C, a large amount of ventilation is required to practice the seedlings; 4 to 5 days before transplanting , Topdressing and delivery of fertilizer, 50-80 grams of ammonium sulfate per square meter, sprayed on the water 100 times, and then washed with water.
In short, the selected varieties, outdoor drying, salt water selection, pharmaceutical soaking, moderate germination, timely dilute sowing, ventilation and training seedlings, nurturing strong, timely transplanting. The seedlings were transplanted with pods in order to facilitate the rapid return of seedlings, adjust the structure of the population, improve the conditions for ventilation and light transmission, increase the rate of low tillering spikes, and reduce the occurrence of diseases. Strong and strong rice production is an important basis for rice production. This is because Zhuang can save Honda's use of fertilizer, widen and sparse planting, reduce the population base, increase Honda water temperature, improve resilience, enhance lodging resistance, and help increase production and income.
Author: Tonghua Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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