First, the need for fertilizer characteristics and fertilization principles
According to the characteristics of heat and cold resistance of muskmelon, Wuping County is suitable for sowing time from mid-February to early September, using hanging vine cultivation, the whole growth period is 75 to 100 days, the growth period is mostly in the hot and dry season, after sowing 3 ~ 5 days emergence, 3 ~ 4 true leaves can be transplanted. The three elements of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in thick-skinned melon are potassium, followed by nitrogen and phosphorus. The requirements of trace elements in calcium, magnesium, boron and zinc are arranged in sequence. Fertilization should be dominated by organic fertilizers, supplemented by chemical fertilizers, scientifically matching large amounts of elements with trace elements; water and fertilizer application as the main top-dressing method, and adopting â€œenriched base fertilizer, re-applied swollen manure, clever foliar fertilizerâ€. The principle of fertilization. From the seedling stage to the extended vine stage, the nutrient absorption before artificial pollination showed an increasing trend. Fertilizer was mainly nitrogen fertilizer, and appropriate phosphorus, potash fertilizer and calcium, magnesium, and boron fertilizers were used to promote the early growth of guajava seedlings and form a high yield seedling frame. Beware of the occurrence of physiological diseases such as magnesium deficiency and boron deficiency. After the 10 leaves have grown, the seedlings should be adjusted for fertilization to control the growth of stems and leaves, promote reproductive growth, so as to avoid overgrowth of nutrients and difficulty in fruit setting during flowering and pollination. During the fruit enlargement period, nutrient absorption reached the highest peak within 15 to 20 days of artificial pollination. N fertilizer should be controlled, and phosphorus and potash fertilizers should be used. The appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium and zinc fertilizers should be used to effectively promote fruit melon enlargement and sugar synthesis. After 20 days of pollination, nutrient uptake decreased, and fertilizer and water supply should be stopped 10 days before harvest.
Second, according to the level of soil fertility, determine the proportion of fertilizer
Muskmelon needs large amount of fertilizer during the whole growth period, and its fertilization amount should be determined according to the soil fertility level and the target yield of Muskmelon. In Wuping County, the soil of thick-skinned melons is mainly composed of stucco fields and ash sand mud fields. From 2001 to 2006, arable land samples showed that the soil fertility of the whole county was high, organic matter was 23.7-40 g/kg, total nitrogen was 1.02-1.98 g/kg, and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen was 91-125 mg/kg. 8.4 to 18.6 mg/kg, available potassium 64 to 92 mg/kg, effective zinc 1.07 to 1.21 mg/kg, effective boron 0.01 to 0.05 g/kg, exchangeable magnesium 0.14 to 0.25 mol/kg, pH It is 5.0 to 5.7. However, due to differences in fertility and habits among different planting areas, farmers have different varieties and quantities of fertilized fertilizers. According to the planting experience and fertilizer tests in recent years, combined with yield, benefit, and other factors, the output of a medium-grown fertile land is 1500-mu per acre. 2000 kg level, the proportion of nitrogen: phosphorus pentoxide: potassium oxide is 1:0.5:1.2~1.5, among which pure nitrogen is 8~10kg, phosphorus pentoxide is 4~5kg, and potassium oxide is 12~15. In kilograms, magnesium oxide in the trace elements is 1 to 2 kg, boron is 0.05 to 0.1 kg, zinc is 0.2 to 0.3 kg, and lime is 75 to 100 kg.
Third, choose a good fertilizer, appropriate amount of appropriate application
1. The suitable pH value for the growth of basal fat muskmelon is 6.0 to 6.8. Wuping County is affected by subtropical climate and other soil formation factors. The soil pH of the planting muskmelon paddy field is acidic, and 5 to 7 days before transplanting. Apply 75 to 100 kg of quicklime to neutralize the acidity of the soil and increase calcium nutrition. In order to meet the needs of early fruiting melon production of thick-skinned melons, sufficient basal fertilizer should be applied and applied in combination with organic and inorganic fertilizers. Thick-skinned melons are shallow-rooted crops, and the fertilization should be appropriate to the depth, approximately 1/2 height, and double lines. Planting uses the middle gully, single-row planting is one side of the gully fertilizer, one side of the melon, to avoid planting on the base fertilizer. Apply 1,000 to 1500 kilograms of perishable manure or 150 to 200 kilograms of bio-organic fertilizer per acre, apply potassium sulfate (15 to 15 to 15) compound fertilizer or 25 to 30 kilograms of BB fertilizer, 0.5 to 1 kilogram of borax, and magnesium sulfate 5 ~ 10 kg. The tests showed that organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers can increase the total sugar by 0.42% to 1.03% compared with single fertilizers. The appearance of the fruits is bright and bright. The yield per hectare is 112-145 kilograms, which is equivalent to 4.0 yuan per kilogram per acre. The net increase in production value is 448-560 yuan, with significant benefits.
2. Early Miao Miao transplanting 3 to 5 days after returning to the seedlings, we must timely raise the seedlings to promote early-onset and fast-acting, 5 kg of ammonium bicarbonate and other available nitrogen fertilizers per acre to water and fertilizer; 10 days after transplanting The second application of Miao Fei, per acre with 5 to 10 kg of 45% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer pouring, to meet the extension period of fertilizer and water needs.
3. After replanting flowering and pollination, after a few days of flowering and pollination, when the fruit grows to the size of the egg, it begins to enter the expansion stage. The development of the upper leaves and fruit all enters the period of peak fertility. At this time, the expansion of the melon fertilization should be repeated twice. Dry application is applied 15 centimeters away from the plant, and 10 to 15 kg of 45% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer and 50% of potassium sulfate 7.5 to 10 kg are applied per mu. The second application is applied every 5 mu for 5 mu. ~ 10 kg of 45% potassium sulfate compound fertilizer, plus 50% potassium sulfate 5 kg, with water and fertilizer pouring.
4. Clever application of foliar hypertrophy skin melon is a fresh fruit, requiring high sweetness, strong flavor, beautiful appearance, excellent quality. Root dressing can improve the rhizosphere nutrition of plants and promote the absorption of nutrients from the roots. At the same time, it can increase the appearance and color of the fruits, increase the sweetness and increase the aroma. In the case of 1 to 3 true leaves at the seedling stage, they were sprayed with 1000-1200 times of plant power 2003 to enhance the stress resistance of the seedlings. Spraying 0.1% to 0.2% urea, 0.05% to 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, chlorophyll, etc. during the period of extension to promote vegetative growth. Spraying at the flowering stage, 0.1% to 0.2% borax solution, 0.05% to 0.1% zinc sulfate solution, flowering essence, etc., to promote flowering and fruit setting. After 7 days and 15 days after fruit setting, Yunda 120 or sweet fruit powder was sprayed to increase the sweetness and increase the appearance.
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