The effect of light on pigs
Illumination time, light intensity, light system and Other light environmental parameters are one of the important environmental factors that affect pig production and directly or indirectly affect the pig's production performance. Foreign scholars have studied the effect of light time, light intensity, etc. on pig's production performance, and found that different light environments have different effects on different types of pigs.
Within a certain range, prolonging the light time can improve the sexual desire of the boar and increasing the light intensity can improve the semen quality of the boar. It has been determined that small boars extend their light from 20 weeks of age. At 26 weeks of age, 73% of boars are able to produce semen, compared with 26% of natural boars. Boars prolong the illumination time to 15 hours and their libido activity increases significantly. Under 8 hours to 10 hours of light, the light intensity increases from 8 lux to 10 lux to 100 lux to 150 lux. Both boar ejaculation and sperm concentration A significant increase.
According to reports, the sexual maturity of gilts in the continuous darkness is 16.3 days later than that in the natural lighting group, 39 days later than the 12-hour lighting group, and 15 hours per day (300 lux) of light is earlier than sexual maturation of the gilts cultivated in autumn and winter under natural light. 20 days; light intensity of 45 lux ~ 60 lux larvae under the light of 10 lux growth and rapid growth, sexual maturation earlier from 30 days to 45 days.
Breeding and pregnancy sows
Extending the photoperiod before and during gestation can promote the secretion of estradiol and progesterone from sows, increase ovarian and uterine function, favor fetal and embryonic development, increase conception rate, reduce embryonic death during pregnancy, and increase litter size. . AKno?Hkob application of continuous lighting, sow fertility rate increased by 10.7%, birth number increased by 0.8 head, birth weight increased by 100 grams.
Light intensity also has a significant effect on sow reproductive performance. In sows fed under conditions of darkness and lack of light, the weight of the ovary was reduced and the conception rate was significantly reduced. Increased light intensity can increase litter size, litter weight and weaning weight. The light intensity increased from 6 lux to 8 lux to 70 lux to 100 lux, the litter size increased by 4.5% to 8.5%, and the litter weight and litter weight increased by 4.5% to 16.7% and 5.1% to 12.2%, respectively.
Changes in light time also have important effects on sow reproductive performance. The shortening of sunshine improves the reproductive performance of pigs, and the extension of sunshine reduces the reproductive performance of pigs. The natural lighting time showed regular changes with the changes of the seasons. The longest duration of sunshine in the summer solstice and the shortest winter solstice sunshine time shortened the sunshine from the summer solstice to the winter solstice and gradually extended from the winter solstice to the summer solstice sunshine. The results of the study showed that after the winter solstice, with the extension of sunshine duration, the conception rate gradually decreased, reaching the minimum from June to August, and about 10% lower than other months. After August, the sow's conception rate gradually increased with the shortening of the sunshine.
Breastfeeding sows and piglets
Increasing the intensity of light and prolonging the light time for lactating sows can stimulate the secretion of prolactin, significantly increase the amount of lactation, and increase the frequency of breastfeeding, thereby increasing weaning weight. In a very bright 400 lux to 500 lux, 16 hours of light per day (8 hours of darkness), piglet weaning is significantly higher than ambient light. According to measurements, compared with 18 hours of light per day for 18 hours, piglets suffering from gastro-intestinal diseases were reduced by 6.3% to 8.7%, mortality was decreased by 2.7% to 4.9%, daily gain was increased by 7.5% to 9.6%, and light intensity was increased from 10 to 10. 60 lux to 100 lux (lighting time of 100 lux) Piglet incidence decreased by 24.8% to 28.6%, survival rate increased by 19.7% to 31.0%, daily gain increased by 0.9 kg to 1.8 kg, and light intensity increased to 350 lux. The difference from 60 lux.
Weaned piglets do not eat in the dark. Extending the photoperiod can influence the average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed conversion rate of weaned piglets. In the Netherlands, Bruininx et al. tested a group of 8-hour light, 16-hour dark, another 23-hour light, and 1-hour dark. The average daily weight consumption of the 23-hour daily weight gain group was 1.5610 pounds to 5 pounds more than the 8-hour light group, and the average daily weight gain was also higher. Although there was no significant difference in the average feed conversion efficiency over the two weeks, the feed conversion efficiency of the 23-hour light group was higher in the second week than in the 8-hour light group.
Growing and finishing pigs
Under normal circumstances, light has little effect on the fattening of pigs. The light of the finishing piggery does not affect the feed intake of the pig and is convenient for feeding and management operations. Strong light will affect the rest and sleep of the finishing pigs. Some 9 fattening pigs were used for the test. In the light contrast of 45 lux to 120 lux, the light weight in the 45 lux group increased by 454 g, the worst was 120 lux, and the daily gain was 374 g. Under the same conditions of consumption of materials, suitable light intensity can increase feed utilization by 3% and increase weight gain by 4%.
Lighting management in piggery
Scientifically establish an open barn lighting system. When formulating a system, you should understand the laws of natural light in your area. The natural lighting time is calculated as the number of hours of sunshine between sunrise and sunset in the local domain. In actual use, according to the time of sunrise and sunset, and then according to the sunshine hours to supplement the lighting of the morning and evening.
Artificial supplemental lighting is a rigorous management work. In order to achieve artificial light supplements, attention should be paid to the following points: (1) Light bulb installation should be evenly distributed, and the wattage of each bulb should not exceed 60 watts. To maintain a height of 1.8 meters to 2 meters; (2) suitable for white light or yellow-white light, should not use red light; (3) regularly check and clean the bulbs, damaged light bulbs should be promptly replaced, pighouse dust is large, regular Clean bulbs can ensure that pigs get effective light; (4) Artificial light sometimes does not, and the duration of light is short, which will affect the implementation of the light system, disrupt the biological response of breeding pigs, and ensure reliable power supply and stable power supply; (5) Turn on and turn off the lights on time every day. It is best to use a timer to control the switch light time. This saves energy and saves labor. (6) The light bulb should be installed stably and cannot be shaken by the wind; (7) Electricity must be guaranteed to be absolutely safe; (8) It is better to install a lampshade for the light bulb so that the light is evenly distributed and the utilization rate is improved.
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