Sweet potatoes are food and vegetables that are used as food and have high nutritional value. Sweet potato has wide adaptability, strong stress resistance, deep and wide root system, roots and stems, and strong fertilizer absorption capacity. A certain amount of production can also be obtained on barren soil. Since sweet potato is a crop that requires more fertilizer, in order to obtain high yield of sweet potato, scientific fertilization must be applied to meet the demand for nutrients for the normal growth of sweet potato at each growth stage, and to achieve cost-effectiveness.
First, the requirement of sweet potato fertilizer law Sweet potato fertilizer requirements, with the most potash fertilizer, followed by nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer less. The needs of sweet potatoes for the three elements differ depending on the growing period. The absorption of potassium from planting to harvest is higher than that of nitrogen and phosphorus, especially in the period of root swelling; nitrogen fertilizer absorbs more during the growth period of stems and leaves, and absorbs less during the expansion of tuberous roots; phosphorus fertilizer absorbs less in the middle period of stem and leaf growth. , but absorb more during the root swelling.
According to the research, every kilogram of sweet potato produced to absorb 1000Kg from the soil to absorb 3.5Kg of nitrogen (N), 1.8Kg of phosphorus (P2O5), about 5.5Kg of potassium (K2O). The ratio of N, P and K is 1:0.51:1.57.
Second, sweet potato fertilizer technology
1, base fertilizer: Shizu base fertilizer is the key measure of sweet potato fertilizer. Sweet potato basal fertilizer should be dominated by organic fertilizer supplemented by chemical fertilizers. The amount of basal fertilizer generally accounts for 60%-80% of the total amount of fertilizer. Generally, 4000kg sweet potato per mu can be applied to organic fertilizer 3000kg-5000kg, and can also be used together with pure nitrogen (N) 3.5kg, equivalent to 20kg of ammonium bicarbonate; available phosphorus (P2O5) 7Kg, equivalent to superphosphate 50kg; available potassium (K2O) 12Kg About 25kg equivalent to potassium sulfate. More than half of the basal fertilizer is applied to the bottom layer when deep plowing, and the rest of the basal fertilizers can be applied to the ridge bottom when ridding or when planting. This method can give full play to the role of fertilizer in the absence of fertilizer.
2 top dressing:
(1) Lifting Miaofei: The Miaomiao fertilizer is an effective fertilization technique that preserves seedlings, promotes early-onset growth, and accelerates the growth of potato seedlings. It can make up for the shortcomings of basal deficiencies and the slow effect of basal fertilizers. Miaomiao is generally chasing quick-applied fertilizers. Top-dressing to catch small seedlings and weak seedlings, so that seedlings catch big seedlings, growing neatly. Open a small hole 7-10cm below the seedlings, apply a small amount of chemical fertilizer, 1.5-3.5kg urea per acre, immediately after the application of water cover soil, can also be 1% urea water irrigation.
(2) Strong plant fertilizer: It is carried out before and after the planting period. Its purpose is to promote the growth of stems and leaves and the formation of tubers. 3.5-5kg of nitrogen per acre will be applied to small plants and large plants.
(3) Cracking fertilizer: During the late growth period of sweet potato, the potato block is prosperous. When the ridge back cracks, it prevents the premature senescence and promotes root enlargement. Generally, 3.5-4.5 kg of urea, 10 kg of potassium sulfate, and 500-750 kg of water are applied per acre. , pouring from the cracks, but should be applied about two months before harvesting, too late can easily lead to withered leaves, potato blocks do not increase weight and other consequences.
(4) Root-fertilizer: In the late growth stage of sweet potato, the absorption ability of the roots is weakened, and the extra-root fertilizer may be used to make up for the lack of nutrition. This method is quick and effective. The root can be sprayed with 0.5% urea dilute solution or 2%-3% superphosphate solution or 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, sprayed once every 7 days, sprayed 2-3 times. It can generally increase production by about 10%.
Third, sweet potato fertilizer points of attention
1. Sweet potato basal fertilizer adopts a method of concentrated deep-seated and stratified combination. This method can meet the demand for fertilizers before, during and after the roots of the tuber, which is conducive to the promotion of early-onset early-onset, early root formation of tubers, and prevention of mid-term appetite and Late premature aging. Deep fertilization can promote a large number of root systems distributed in deeper soil layers. This layer of soil moisture is better and the soil nutrient content is higher, so that sweet potatoes can simultaneously receive the supply of water and nutrients, thus greatly increasing the yield of sweet potatoes.
2. If the soil is dry when planted, the temperature is low and the potato seedlings are weak. It is necessary to raise the seedlings early. If the plants grow normally, they can use less or no fertilizer.
3. In the branching and potato stage, the formation of underground root nets begins to enlarge the tubers, and the suction fertility is strong. In order to increase the leaf area and increase the photosynthetic production efficiency, it is necessary to apply early fertilizer so as to achieve a strong and fast-growing potato. purpose. Better growth can reduce fertilizer use. Such as raising seedlings or a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer, Zhuanggu promote potato fertilizer only after potash fertilizer, Mushi potassium sulfate about 10kg.
4. Preserved potato fertilizer is generally about 45 days after planting. The above-ground part has already dumped the vine under the ridge. The potato block has been basically shaped. On the side of the ridge, one third of the plough is used to break open and fertilize. Breaking the ridges and fertilizing improved the ventilation conditions of the soil and was conducive to the expansion of the tubers. The main fertilizer is potassium fertilizer. The topdressing of potassium fertilizers is that the leaves can extend the leaf age, thicken stems and petioles, and keep them young. Second, they increase the photosynthetic efficiency and promote the operation of photosynthetic products. The third is the ratio of potassium to nitrogen in stems and leaves and tubers. High, can promote potato block expansion.
5, sweet potato is a chlorine crop, can not use fertilizer containing chlorine. When ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and other chlorinated fertilizers are used in excess of a certain amount, not only will the starch content of the potato block be reduced, but also the tubers will not survive storage.
6. An important principle of sweet potato fertilization is that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer should be controlled under conditions of sufficient water supply and good moisture, so as to avoid stem and leaf lengthiness. In July and August, in high-temperature and drought areas, sufficient nitrogen fertilizer should be applied before drought to promote stems and leaves in dry conditions. Front ridge. In autumn and rainy years, the number and frequency of topdressing may be appropriately reduced, and vice versa.
7, sandy soil, good ventilation, but poor fertilizer retention and water retention, fertilizer effect is not lasting, and easy to drain. To increase the use of organic fertilizers to improve the soil, the application of quick-acting fertilizers should be small, and the frequency of topdressing should be appropriately increased. The clay soil, due to poor air permeability, slow decomposition of fertilizer, but strong fertility, so the amount of top dressing should not be too small, may be appropriate to chase, reduce the frequency of topdressing.
8. Different front crops also affect soil fertility. For example, if wheat with strong fertility is used as a pre-harvest hoe and the planting season is late, a quick-effect basal fertilizer and early fertilizer should be added. For example, if the former is rape or legume green manure, the amount of fertilizer should be reduced more than that of wheat stubble.
In short, according to the fertility characteristics of sweet potatoes and fertilizer requirements, sweet potato fertilizer should grasp the following principles: farmyard fertilizer, supplemented by chemical fertilizers; basal-based, supplemented by top dressing; top dressing mainly in the previous period, supplemented by the latter.
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