1 Choosing a suitable area for development The new development areas of Camellia oleifera are dominated by the central cultivation area and suitable cultivation area, and the development of Camellia oleifera in the northern fringe cultivation area and in the north area should be avoided. The newly-planted land should be selected in the red and yellow soils and gentle slopes below 500 meters above sea level, slope below 25, soil thickness over 40 cm, and try to avoid afforestation in high mountainous areas, tuyere and windward sides.
2 to prevent nursery seedlings by frozen oil tea seedlings cultivation choice in the easy irrigation sites, not easy to choose in the valley wind area, seedling transplant should be in the fall or spring, cold wave impact should not be transplanted. Before the cold wave, seedlings should cover grass or cover small sheds to remove snow from the shed.
3 Timely treatment of newly planted forest damaged by damaged plants should be done with timely seedlings to support and cultivate the soil after the temperature rises, and the branches and leaves of the frozen sections should be cut off in time to protect the wound; the forest land should be drained. For some of the fallen Camellia plants, they should be righted, cultivated, and cleaned up.
4 Selecting early-middle flowers to avoid cold-cultivated varieties or afforestation replanting seedlings require the development of root system, seedling height above 30 cm. Use early or mid-floral varieties selected from local or more northern regions to improve cold resistance. Avoid trans-regional transport of species or breeds. In the northern producing areas, early-flowering and high-yielding varieties were selected as much as possible.
5 Strengthen management after afforestation New varieties of forest stand should be topped in time after afforestation, and pruning, branching and other methods should be used to cultivate the branches of trees in different directions in the early stage to promote the formation of dwarf trees and well-balanced canopy structures.
6 Carry out fertilization and intercropping, and restore tree vigor. Frozen forest stands should be topdressed in time for the beginning of new tea shoots in early April to facilitate the restoration of growth. The first three years of new planting can be used for the intercropping of low-grade crops of green manure and legumes. It is not appropriate to use vines or high-till crops, and the intercropping crops should not be too close to the oil-tea plants. The first year of afforestation is based on basal fertilization. Two to three years of young forests are fertilized twice a year with 100 g of compound fertilizer per plant. With the expansion of the tree to increase the amount of fertilizer. Before planting spring buds, the organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer were applied 30 to 40 cm away from the trunk of the plantation. The organic fertilizer was applied at 1 000 kg or 50 kg of compound fertilizer per acre. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were added after the autumn fruit harvest.
7 Establishing a reasonable structure for the forest The existing oil tea in China is mostly afforestation in the 50s and 70s of the 20th century. Due to factors such as actual reproduction, weak tree vigor, and improved canopy, the current widespread growth is poor and the yield is low. Most of the severely broken branches this year are in dense stands, shifting canopy, and weak stand. In combination with the transformation of low-yield forests, gradual replacement, enhanced tending, and species replacement will be adopted to increase the seedling capacity of low-yielding forests. In the process of transforming low-yield forests, it is necessary to emphasize reducing the canopy height, cultivating reasonable crowns and tree structures, and eventually forming a uniform and reasonable stand structure. For large tree grafting transformation of production of forest stand or scion nursery, grafting survival should be promptly removed sprouting branches, living grafting branches sparsely cut, and cultivated symmetry branch structure. The first five years after grafting, the trees should be properly supported.
8 Prevention and control of pests and diseases The key prevention and control of Camellia anthracnose, soft rot, blue winged beetle, and weevils are the main diseases and pests of Camellia oleifera, especially blue-winged long-horned cattle, which can cause local damage to the branches and make the trees delicate and delicate. Suffered from freezing injury and snow damage.
9 Strengthen the Management of Nursery To avoid or reduce the damage caused by snow damage to the nursery, attention should be paid to: cultivating seedlings in the main production areas of tree species; selecting rows and irrigation sites to cultivate seedlings; clearing the ditch for drainage before the winter and applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizers Before the cold wave arrives, cover (weeds, film) measures; the spring withdrawal should not be too early, covered with straw, etc. before the cold wave.
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