Today, the walnut seedling market is hot and the cultivation of seedlings is the basis for obtaining high-quality grafted seedlings. The following is a little bit of experience in the four years of working on seedling raising.
The cultivation technique of a walnut seedling
1 Seed selection and harvesting
The walnuts used for sowing must be selected from seeds that grow robustly, have no pests, and are fully mature. Such seeds have high germination rates and robust seedling growth. When the nut green skin from the yellow and green and cracking can be harvested, but to ensure the quality of seed, sowing walnuts should be harvested 3-5 days later than the commodity walnut, can be directly peeling nuts to dry out, when drying Ventilated and dry place, avoid direct exposure, so as not to affect the vitality of the seed. After sowing seedlings are sowed after autumn, the spring sowing seeds need to be stored.
2 Nursery selection and site preparation
Selecting a nursery is the key to raising seedlings. Nursery land should be selected where there is no topography, fertile soil, loose soil, sunny leeward, well-drained water, irrigation conditions, and easy access to fire. Can't choose heavy land.
Soil preparation is mainly used for deep plowing of the soil. Through soil preparation, the permeability of the soil can be increased, and water can be preserved, buried in weeds, and pests can be eliminated.
3 Pre-seeding seed treatment
Autumn sowing can be directly sowed: spring broadcaster must deal with common methods are:
1) Sand (Lamination) 2-3 months
In October-November, dig a sand trench that is 1 meter deep and 1 meter wide. At the beginning of the sand trap, a layer of 10cm thick sand is laid on the bottom of the ditch (the moisture content of the sand is in hand, but it is not suitable for dripping). A layer of walnuts is placed on it and a layer of sand about 5cm is laid. .... From the beginning of the sand trap, set a straw handle every 1 meter.
2) Water immersion
Dip in cold water for 7-10 days, change the water once a day or the sack filled with walnut seeds in running water, make it suck the mouth and expand and split, then you can sow.
3) Cold soaking
The seeds soaked in cold water for a week are exposed to the sun and sow when most of the seeds break.
4) Warm water immersion method
The seeds were placed in a hot water tank at 80Â°C, and then stirred to allow the natural temperature to cool and then soaked for 8-10 days. The water should be changed every day, and the seed can be sowed when the seeds are expanded.
1) Sowing time
Can be divided into autumn and spring broadcast.
Autumn sowing is generally carried out after the harvest of walnuts until the soil is frozen (usually from late October to late November). It should be noted that the autumn sowing should not be too early and too late, and the high temperature is too early. Seeds are susceptible to germination or mildew in wet soils, and are vulnerable to damage by birds and animals; late sowing of soil is frozen and operation is difficult.
Spring sowing should be carried out after the soil is defrosted. In general, the northern region is carried out from late March to early April. The spring sowing seeds need to be handled, and the sowing time is short and the field operations are tense.
2) Seeding method
More use of sowing and drilling. When seedlings are planted at the nursery, seedlings are the main seedlings. When sowing, the seedbeds should be made 1 meter wide and 3 lines should be sown per bed. It is best to use wide and narrow rows to facilitate the grafting operation. The width is 40 centimeters and the narrow row is 20 centimeters.
The seed placement law for sowing is that the seed suture line is perpendicular to the ground and the tip of the seed is placed on one side, and the buried depth is generally 3-5 times the seed diameter. The bed can be made lighter, the ridge can be deeper, the autumn sowing should be deep, and the spring sowing should follow the principle of dryness and deepness.
Pour a little water before sowing and sow when soil moisture is appropriate. In dry areas where water is scarce, irrigation can be used. After the ditching, the ditch is filled with water. After the water is soaked, the seeds are sown and soaked to increase the ground temperature. Protect your hoe and increase the rate of emergence.
3) Seeding rate
Because of the row spacing and seed size, it varies from 90 to 150 kilograms per acre. However, when seeds are prepared before sowing, the total amount depends on the seeding method, row spacing, seed size, and quality. It is advisable to investigate the germination rate before sowing in order to accurately calculate the seeding rate.
5 seedling management
About 20 days after the spring sowing of walnuts, sprouting and sprouting began, and about 40 days later, it was necessary to cultivate a robust grafted seedling. The field management of seedlings must be strengthened.
1) Go to the film
After the emergence rate of walnut seed reaches 60%, due to the constant rise of the outside temperature and the ground temperature, the mulch film should be broken first, and the seedlings should be gradually adapted to the external environment, and the mulching film should be removed step by step.
2) Fertilizer management
In general, no watering is needed during the emergence period of walnuts to avoid the formation of panel knots. If the water quality is too poor, watering can be performed once and the shallow loose soil can be properly used.
When the seedlings are flushed, fertilizer and water management should be strengthened in order to accelerate their growth.
In May and June, the key period for the growth of seedlings was combined with applying water-saving nitrogen fertilizer 2 times, each time about 15 kilograms of urea was applied per acre, and potassium fertilizer was applied once a month in July and August (10 kilograms per acre).
3) cultivating grass
Timely cultivating grass can loosen the topsoil, reduce evaporation to prevent surface compaction, facilitate gas exchange, increase the availability of effective soil nutrients, and create favorable growth conditions for soil microbial activity.
4) Cut off the root
In the late summer, the seedlings can be cut off. Cutting off the main root when raising the seedlings can promote the development of lateral roots and improve the quality of the seedlings, thus improving the survival rate of the plants and facilitating the smooth removal of the grafted seedlings.
Root cutting method: At a distance of 20 cm from the base of the nursery stock, use a root spatula to cut the ground at an angle of 45 degrees to cut the main root. After rooting, it is necessary to strengthen fertilizer and water management. Promote wound healing and lateral root development.
In addition, we must strengthen pest control work, especially leafy pests.
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